ETFs in India: The Rising Trend of Exchange-Traded Funds in Indian Markets

by | Dec 21, 2023 | 0 comments

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In recent years, the Indian financial market has witnessed the meteoric rise of a relatively new investment vehicle – the Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF). Combining the flexibility of stock trading with the diversified risk of mutual funds, ETFs have carved out a significant niche in the investment portfolios of both retail and institutional investors in India. This surge in popularity marks a significant shift in investment patterns, reflecting a broader trend towards more sophisticated and diverse financial instruments in the country’s rapidly maturing market.

ETFs, known for their unique traits of being traded like stocks while offering a diversified exposure akin to mutual funds, have emerged as a favoured choice for many. Their appeal lies in their simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and liquidity, making them an attractive option for a wide range of investors, from the seasoned trader to the novice investor.

The purpose of this blog is to delve into the nuances of this burgeoning segment of the Indian financial market. We aim to explore the factors driving the growth of ETFs in India, understand their benefits, dissect the prevailing market trends, confront the challenges they face, and envisage their future trajectory. This exploration will not only shed light on the rise of ETFs but also offer insights into the evolving dynamics of the Indian investment landscape, where traditional investment avenues are increasingly making room for more innovative and flexible options.

Section 1: Understanding ETFs

Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs) have revolutionized the way individuals and institutions invest in markets worldwide, including India. To appreciate their growing influence in the Indian market, it’s essential to first understand what ETFs are and how they operate.

What are Exchange-Traded Funds?

  • Definition:

    ETFs are investment funds traded on stock exchanges, much like stocks. They hold assets such as stocks, commodities, or bonds and generally operate with an arbitrage mechanism designed to keep trading close to its net asset value, although deviations can occasionally occur.

  • Structure and Functioning:

    ETFs combine the features of both mutual funds and stocks. Like mutual funds, they offer a diversified portfolio; however, they trade throughout the day on stock exchanges at market-determined prices, like stocks.

Types of ETFs in the Indian Market

  • Equity ETFs:

    These are the most common type, tracking various stock market indices. They offer investors a proportionate share in a pool of securities.

  • Debt ETFs:

    These ETFs invest in fixed-income securities like corporate bonds, government securities, and treasury bills.

  • Gold ETFs:

    These funds invest in physical gold and aim to track the price of the metal. They offer a way to invest in gold without the need for physical storage.

  • Sectoral and Thematic ETFs:

    These are designed to offer exposure to specific sectors (like banking, IT) or themes (like ESG – Environmental, Social, Governance).

Comparison with Mutual Funds

  • Trading:

    Unlike mutual funds, which are priced at the end of the trading day, ETFs are traded throughout the trading session at prices that may be above or below the actual NAV (Net Asset Value).

  • Expense Ratios:

    ETFs typically have lower expense ratios compared to mutual funds, making them a cost-effective investment option.

  • Passive Management:

    Most ETFs are passively managed, as they typically track a specific index, unlike actively managed mutual funds.

Understanding the ETF Market in India

  • Market Evolution:

    The ETF market in India has evolved significantly since the introduction of the first ETF in 2001. The growth has been marked by increased variety, innovation, and participation.

  • Regulatory Framework:

    The regulatory framework in India, governed by SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India), has played a crucial role in shaping the ETF landscape, ensuring transparency and investor protection.

ETFs present a unique proposition for investors in the Indian market, offering diversification, ease of trading, and lower costs. Understanding their structure, types, and how they differ from traditional mutual funds is crucial for investors looking to tap into this growing market segment.

Section 2: The Growth of ETFs in India

The trajectory of Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs) in India is a remarkable story of growth and expansion. Over the years, ETFs have not only gained popularity among investors but also become a significant part of the country’s investment landscape.

Historical Context and Growth Trajectory

  • Introduction of ETFs in India:

    The Indian ETF market started in 2001 with the launch of the “Nifty ETF,” which tracked the NSE’s Nifty 50 index. Initially, the adoption was slow, as investors were more accustomed to traditional investment methods.

  • Growth Over the Years:

    The last decade has witnessed a significant increase in the popularity and acceptance of ETFs. This growth can be attributed to several factors, including increased awareness, higher returns, and favourable regulatory changes.

Data and Statistics Demonstrating Growth

  • Asset Under Management (AUM):

    The AUM of ETFs in India has seen a substantial rise. From a modest beginning, the total AUM of ETFs has grown multi-fold, indicating the increasing trust and preference among investors.

  • Number of ETF Offerings:

    The variety of ETFs available in the market has also expanded, ranging from broad-based index ETFs to sector-specific and thematic ETFs.

Government Initiatives Boosting ETF Market

  • EPFO Investments in ETFs:

    A significant boost to the ETF market came when the Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO) started investing a portion of its corpus in equity ETFs. This move not only brought in substantial capital but also sent a positive signal about the viability of ETFs as an investment option.

  • Disinvestment through ETFs:

    The government’s use of ETFs as a tool for disinvestment in public sector undertakings has also added to the growth and visibility of ETFs in the Indian market.

Retail and Institutional Adoption

  • Retail Investor Participation:

    The simplicity and lower costs of ETFs have appealed to retail investors, leading to wider participation.

  • Institutional Interest:

    Institutional investors, including mutual funds, insurance companies, and provident funds, have increasingly turned to ETFs for their liquidity and ease of diversification.

The growth of ETFs in the Indian market is a testament to their increasing acceptance among various investor classes. From a niche product, ETFs have emerged as a mainstream investment vehicle, characterized by simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and potential for higher returns. This trend reflects a maturing market and a more sophisticated investor base in India.

Section 3: Factors Driving the Popularity of ETFs

The ascent of Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs) in the Indian financial landscape can be attributed to a confluence of factors. These factors not only underscore the attributes of ETFs but also reflect the evolving preferences of Indian investors.

Low Cost and Higher Returns

  • Affordability:

    One of the most appealing aspects of ETFs is their low cost. Compared to traditional mutual funds, ETFs typically have lower expense ratios, making them an attractive option for cost-conscious investors.

  • Potential for Better Returns:

    ETFs often mirror the performance of an index or a basket of assets, reducing the risk of underperformance by a fund manager, which can lead to potentially higher returns over the long term.

Diversification Benefits

  • Risk Mitigation:

    ETFs provide an easy way for investors to gain exposure to a wide range of assets, sectors, or geographical regions, helping to diversify and thereby reduce investment risk.

  • Accessibility to Various Markets:

    Through ETFs, investors can access various markets and asset classes, including those that might be difficult to enter individually, like gold or international markets.

Transparency and Ease of Trading

  • Real-Time Pricing:

    ETFs are traded on stock exchanges, allowing investors to buy and sell units at market prices throughout the trading day, unlike mutual funds which are traded at end-of-day NAVs.

  • Visibility:

    The holdings of an ETF are typically transparent, updated daily, and available to investors, providing clarity on where their funds are invested.

Government Initiatives and Policy Support

  • Backing by Government Policies:

    The Indian government’s move to use ETFs as an instrument for disinvestment in public sector enterprises has brought ETFs into the limelight and increased investor confidence in them.

  • EPFO Investments:

    The decision of the Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO) to invest a part of its corpus in ETFs has also played a significant role in popularizing ETFs among a broader investor base.

Changing Investor Preferences and Awareness

  • Shift in Investor Sentiment:

    There’s a growing trend among Indian investors, especially the younger demographic, towards more market-linked investment products as opposed to traditional savings schemes.

  • Increased Financial Literacy:

    Enhanced financial literacy and awareness campaigns have made investors more cognizant of the benefits of ETFs, contributing to their growing popularity.

Technological Advancements

  • Ease of Access:

    With the advent of digital trading platforms, investing in ETFs has become more accessible and convenient for retail investors.

  • Information Dissemination:

    The widespread availability of market information and analysis tools has empowered investors to make more informed decisions about investing in ETFs.

The growing popularity of ETFs in India is a multifaceted phenomenon, driven by factors ranging from their inherent cost-effectiveness and transparency to government initiatives and a shift in investor preferences. As the Indian market continues to evolve, these factors collectively contribute to the burgeoning appeal of ETFs among a diverse range of investors.

Section 4: Advantages of Investing in ETFs

Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs) have gained prominence in the Indian investment landscape for several compelling reasons. These financial instruments offer a range of advantages that cater to both novice and seasoned investors, making them an appealing choice for a diversified investment portfolio.


  • Lower Expense Ratios:

    ETFs are generally more cost-effective than mutual funds. They typically have lower annual expenses, as they are passively managed and track an index, reducing management fees.

  • No Entry or Exit Loads:

    Most ETFs do not charge entry or exit loads, which further reduces the cost for investors, especially for those who trade frequently.


  • Broad Market Exposure:

    ETFs provide exposure to a wide range of stocks or assets within a single fund. Investors can gain access to a whole index or sector, spreading their risk across various assets.

  • International Diversification:

    Certain ETFs allow investors to invest in international markets, providing diversification beyond the Indian market.

Flexibility and Liquidity

  • Trading Flexibility:

    ETFs are traded on stock exchanges, similar to stocks. This means investors can buy or sell ETFs throughout the trading day at market prices.

  • High Liquidity:

    Given their exchange-traded nature, ETFs generally offer high liquidity, making it easier for investors to enter or exit positions.


  • Portfolio Transparency:

    ETFs offer a higher degree of transparency. The holdings of an ETF are disclosed daily, allowing investors to see exactly what assets they are invested in.

  • Tracking an Index:

    Since most ETFs track a specific index, investors can easily understand and analyze the performance of their ETF investments in comparison to the market index.

Tax Efficiency

  • Lower Capital Gains Tax:

    In India, ETFs often have tax advantages compared to mutual funds, especially in terms of long-term capital gains tax.

  • Dividend Efficiency:

    Dividends in ETFs are reinvested immediately, which can be more tax-efficient for investors.

Use in Investment Strategies

  • Versatility in Strategies:

    ETFs can be used in various investment strategies, including hedging, managing risk, and asset allocation.

  • Suitable for Different Investment Goals:

    Whether an investor is looking for short-term trading opportunities or long-term wealth creation, ETFs offer suitable options.

The advantages of investing in ETFs in the Indian market are significant. They combine cost-effectiveness, diversification, flexibility, liquidity, transparency, and tax efficiency, making them a suitable investment option for a wide spectrum of investors. As the Indian financial market continues to evolve, the role of ETFs is likely to become increasingly important in investment portfolios.

Section 5: Market Trends and Investor Behaviour in ETFs

The Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs) market in India has not only grown in size but also evolved in terms of investor behaviour and market trends. This section delves into these dynamics, highlighting how they have shaped and are shaping the ETF landscape in India.

Current Trends in the ETF Market

  • Rise in ETF Offerings:

    The Indian market has seen an increase in the variety and complexity of ETFs, including sector-specific, thematic, and smart beta ETFs.

  • Growing Institutional Interest:

    Institutional investors, including mutual funds, insurance companies, and pension funds, have shown increased interest in ETFs, mainly due to their cost-effectiveness and ease of diversification.

  • Government Influence:

    Government initiatives, such as using ETFs for disinvestment in public sector enterprises, have not only boosted the market size but also increased investor awareness and confidence in ETFs.

Changing Investor Behaviour

  • Shift from Traditional Investment Options:

    There’s a noticeable shift among Indian investors from traditional investment avenues like fixed deposits and individual stocks to more diversified options like ETFs.

  • Increased Participation by Retail Investors:

    The ease of investing in ETFs, coupled with the growth of online trading platforms, has attracted more retail investors to ETFs.

  • Informed Decision Making:

    With better access to financial information and increased financial literacy, Indian investors are becoming more discerning, opting for ETFs for their transparency and tracking ability.

Comparison with Global Trends

  • Mirroring Global ETF Growth:

    The growth trajectory of ETFs in India aligns with global trends, where ETFs have become a mainstay in investors’ portfolios.

  • Adoption Rate:

    While the Indian market’s adoption rate of ETFs is growing, it still has room to reach the levels seen in more developed markets like the U.S. and Europe.

Popular ETFs among Indian Investors

  • Index-Based ETFs:

    ETFs that track major indices like Nifty 50 and Sensex are popular due to their simplicity and representation of the broader market.

  • Gold ETFs:

    Given India’s affinity for gold, gold ETFs have become a popular choice for investors looking to invest in gold without the hassles of physical storage.

The Indian ETF market is characterized by diverse trends and a shifting investor base. From a growing range of ETF offerings to changing investor preferences and behaviours, the market is becoming increasingly sophisticated. As more investors recognize the benefits of ETFs, coupled with government initiatives and technological advancements, ETFs are poised for further growth and integration into the mainstream investment culture in India.

Section 6: Challenges and Limitations of ETFs in India

While Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs) have gained popularity in the Indian market, their growth is not without challenges and limitations. Understanding these hurdles is essential for investors and market participants to navigate this investment avenue effectively.

Market Liquidity Issues

  • Liquidity Concerns:

    One of the primary challenges with some ETFs in India, particularly those tracking niche sectors or smaller indices, is liquidity. Due to lower trading volumes, investors might face challenges in buying or selling these ETFs at optimal prices.

  • Impact on Pricing:

    Limited liquidity can lead to significant discrepancies between the ETF’s price and its Net Asset Value (NAV), potentially affecting investment returns.

Tracking Errors

  • Deviation from Index Performance:

    Tracking error, the difference between the returns of the ETF and the underlying index or asset it tracks, is a concern for ETF investors. Factors like fund management fees, cash holdings, and rebalancing frequency can contribute to these errors.

  • Managing Investor Expectations:

    Investors need to be aware of potential tracking errors and understand how they might impact their investment goals.

Regulatory Challenges

  • Evolving Regulatory Landscape:

    The regulatory framework for ETFs in India is still evolving. As the market grows and new types of ETFs emerge, ensuring comprehensive and effective regulation poses a challenge.

  • Adherence to Guidelines:

    Ensuring that ETFs adhere to the regulatory guidelines set by SEBI and other bodies is crucial for maintaining market integrity and investor trust.

Investor Awareness and Education

  • Lack of Understanding:

    Despite the growth in ETFs, there is still a lack of understanding among many investors, especially retail investors, about how ETFs work and their role in a diversified portfolio.

  • Need for Investor Education:

    Continuous efforts in investor education are necessary to increase awareness and understanding of ETFs, particularly regarding their benefits, risks, and suitable investment strategies.

Technological and Operational Challenges

  • Technological Infrastructure:

    As ETF trading relies heavily on technology, ensuring robust trading platforms and infrastructure is crucial. Any technological glitches can impact trading and investor confidence.

  • Operational Efficiency:

    Streamlining operational processes related to ETFs, including fund management and distribution, remains a challenge for ensuring efficient market functioning.

The challenges and limitations facing ETFs in the Indian market are significant but not insurmountable. Addressing liquidity concerns, reducing tracking errors, enhancing regulatory frameworks, improving investor education, and strengthening technological and operational infrastructure are critical steps towards ensuring the healthy growth and sustainability of ETFs in India.

Section 7: The Future of ETFs in India

The future of Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs) in India appears promising, with potential for significant growth and innovation. As the financial landscape evolves, ETFs are poised to play an increasingly important role in the portfolios of Indian investors.

Potential Developments in the ETF Market

  • Diversification of Offerings:

    The Indian ETF market is expected to diversify further, introducing a wider array of products. This could include ETFs focusing on specific sectors, themes (like sustainable or ESG investing), and innovative financial instruments (such as fixed-income ETFs or smart beta ETFs).

  • Technological Integration:

    Advancements in financial technology are likely to influence the ETF market, potentially leading to more user-friendly trading platforms, enhanced liquidity solutions, and better tracking mechanisms.

Growth Prospects and Market Expansion

  • Increasing Market Penetration:

    As awareness and understanding of ETFs grow, more retail and institutional investors are likely to embrace them, contributing to the expansion of the ETF market in India.

  • Global Investment Trends:

    The Indian ETF market is expected to align more closely with global investment trends, potentially attracting more foreign investment and facilitating cross-border investment opportunities for Indian investors.

Regulatory Evolution and Framework

  • Adaptive Regulatory Measures:

    SEBI and other regulatory bodies will continue to adapt and update regulations to accommodate the growing and changing ETF market, focusing on investor protection, market integrity, and transparency.

  • Regulatory Support for Innovation:

    Supportive regulatory policies are anticipated, encouraging innovation in ETF products while ensuring robust risk management and compliance.

Investor Education and Awareness

  • Enhanced Investor Outreach:

    Continued efforts in investor education will be crucial. This includes providing resources and conducting outreach programs to inform investors about the benefits and risks of ETF investing.

  • Building Trust and Confidence:

    Educating investors about ETFs will help build trust and confidence in these products, which is essential for long-term market growth.

Challenges and Opportunities

  • Addressing Current Challenges:

    The future growth of ETFs in India will depend on how effectively current challenges like liquidity issues and tracking errors are addressed.

  • Leveraging Technology and Innovation:

    Embracing technological advancements and innovative financial products will be key to capturing new market opportunities and meeting investor demands.

The ETF market in India is at a juncture of significant growth and evolution. With a focus on diversification, technological integration, regulatory support, and investor education, ETFs are well-positioned to become a more prominent feature of the Indian investment landscape. As the market matures, ETFs will likely offer more innovative and varied investment opportunities, catering to the evolving needs of both retail and institutional investors.


As we conclude our exploration into the burgeoning world of Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs) in the Indian market, it’s evident that ETFs are more than just a passing trend; they represent a significant shift in investment preferences and strategies. From their humble beginnings to becoming a cornerstone of modern investment portfolios, ETFs in India have traversed a remarkable journey of growth and evolution.

Synthesizing Key Insights

  • A Story of Growth:

    The ascent of ETFs in the Indian market is a testament to their inherent advantages, including cost-effectiveness, transparency, liquidity, and diversification. These benefits have resonated with a wide range of investors, leading to their widespread acceptance and growth.

  • Market Dynamics:

    The dynamics of the Indian ETF market, characterized by increasing variety, enhanced regulatory frameworks, and growing investor participation, reflect a maturing and sophisticated investment landscape.

  • Navigating Challenges:

    While the road ahead for ETFs is promising, navigating challenges such as market liquidity, investor education, and regulatory adaptation will be crucial for sustaining their growth and ensuring they continue to serve the diverse needs of Indian investors.

Future Outlook

  • The future of ETFs in India is bright, with potential for further diversification, technological advancements, and deeper market penetration. As the financial ecosystem evolves, ETFs are poised to play a pivotal role, offering innovative solutions to both new and seasoned investors.
  • The continued growth of ETFs will likely be bolstered by regulatory support, technological enhancements, and a growing emphasis on investor education, ensuring that ETFs remain a vital part of India’s investment narrative.

Embracing the ETF Revolution

  • For investors, embracing the ‘ETF revolution’ means recognizing the value these instruments bring to investment portfolios, whether for achieving diversification, managing risk, or seeking cost-effective market exposure.
  • As the Indian market continues to evolve, staying informed and adaptable will be key for investors looking to leverage the opportunities presented by ETFs.

Final Thoughts In summary, the growth of ETFs in the Indian market is a reflection of a deeper change within the investment community – a move towards products that offer transparency, efficiency, and alignment with global investment trends. As ETFs continue to carve out their niche in the Indian financial market, they will undoubtedly play a crucial role in shaping the investment strategies of the future.


Additional Tips for Engaging with ETFs in the Indian Market

  • Conduct Thorough Research:
    • Before investing in any ETF, conduct thorough research on its track record, the index it tracks, its expense ratio, and performance history.
    • Evaluate how well the ETF aligns with your investment goals and risk tolerance.
  • Monitor Market Trends:
    • Keep an eye on market trends, especially those that might impact the sectors or indices your ETFs are tracking.
    • Staying informed about economic developments, both domestically and globally, can help you make timely decisions regarding your ETF investments.
  • Diversify Your ETF Investments:
    • Don’t put all your funds into a single ETF. Diversify across different types of ETFs (equity, debt, gold, etc.) to spread risk.
    • Consider diversifying across different market capitalizations and sectors.
  • Understand the Tax Implications:
    • Be aware of the tax implications associated with investing in ETFs in India. Consult a tax advisor if necessary to understand how ETF returns are taxed and plan your investments accordingly.
  • Utilize Dollar-Cost Averaging:
    • Consider using a dollar-cost averaging strategy, where you invest a fixed amount regularly. This can help in reducing the impact of market volatility.
  • Review and Rebalance Regularly:
    • Regularly review your ETF investments to ensure they are performing as expected and align with your investment strategy.
    • Rebalance your portfolio when necessary to maintain your desired asset allocation.
  • Stay Cautious of Market Sentiment:
    • While ETFs are a convenient way to invest, it’s important to not get swayed by short-term market sentiments and speculations.
    • Make informed decisions based on research rather than market hype.
  • Leverage Technology for Trading and Analysis:
    • Use online trading platforms and investment analysis tools for easy access and management of your ETF investments.
    • Many platforms offer features like real-time tracking, performance analysis, and personalized alerts.
  • Seek Professional Advice:
    • If you’re new to ETFs or uncertain about your investment choices, don’t hesitate to seek advice from financial advisors.
    • A professional can help tailor your ETF investments to your specific financial situation and goals.
  • Stay Informed About New ETF Launches and Products:
    • Keep track of new ETF launches and product offerings in the market. Newer ETFs might offer innovative exposure to emerging trends or sectors.


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